# A dictionary for zero knowledge terminlogy

**Dictionary for zero knowledge terminlogy.**

February 21, 2023

Interactive Oracle Proofs (IOP) - A type of zero knowledge proof where a prover and a verifier interact through a series of oracle queries to establish the validity of a statement.

Non-Interactive Zero Knowledge Proofs (NIZK) - A type of zero knowledge proof that can be verified without interaction from the verifier.

Perfect Zero Knowledge - A type of zero knowledge proof where the verifier learns nothing about the witness, beyond the fact that the statement is true.

Statistical Zero Knowledge - A type of zero knowledge proof where the verifier can only be convinced of the validity of the statement with high probability, but not with absolute certainty.

Sigma Protocols - A class of zero knowledge protocols used to prove knowledge of discrete logarithms or factorization of integers.

Bulletproofs - A type of zero knowledge proof that enables efficient range proofs and efficient verification of transactions in cryptocurrencies.

zk-SNARKs - A type of zero knowledge proof that enables verification of computations without revealing the inputs, commonly used in blockchain and cryptocurrency applications.

Zcash - A cryptocurrency that uses zk-SNARKs to ensure privacy of transactions.

Witness Indistinguishable Proofs (WIP) - A type of zero knowledge proof where the verifier cannot distinguish between different witnesses that satisfy the statement.

Computational Zero Knowledge - A type of zero knowledge proof where the verifier is convinced of the validity of the statement based on the computational difficulty of breaking a cryptographic assumption.

Soundness - The property of a zero knowledge proof where if the statement is false, no polynomial-time algorithm can convince the verifier that it is true with high probability.

Completeness - The property of a zero knowledge proof where if the statement is true, a polynomial-time prover can convince the verifier with high probability.

Fiat-Shamir Transform - A method for converting a public-coin interactive protocol into a non-interactive zero knowledge proof.

Honest-Verifier Zero Knowledge - A type of zero knowledge proof where the prover does not need to assume anything about the verifier, and the verifier simply follows the protocol.

Quantum Zero Knowledge - A type of zero knowledge proof that can be executed using a quantum computer, providing even stronger security guarantees than classical zero knowledge proofs.

Witness - The private input to a zero knowledge proof, whose validity is being proved by the prover.

Circuit - A mathematical representation of a computation that can be used in zero knowledge proofs.

Commitment - A cryptographic primitive used to bind a value to a commitment string without revealing the value.

Simulator - A polynomial-time algorithm that can generate indistinguishable transcripts from a zero knowledge proof, without knowing the witness.

Public Parameters - The public inputs to a zero knowledge proof, which are known by both the prover and verifier.

Setup - The process of generating the public parameters for a zero knowledge proof system.

Security Parameter - A parameter that determines the security level of a zero knowledge proof system.

Groth16 - A specific implementation of the zk-SNARK protocol that is widely used in blockchain applications.

Bulletproof Constraints - The conditions that must be met by a bulletproof in order to be valid.

Merkle Tree - A tree data structure commonly used in blockchain and cryptocurrency applications to efficiently store and verify large amounts of data.

Pedersen Commitment - A type of commitment scheme that is computationally binding and hiding.

Sigma Protocol Transcripts - The exchange of messages between the prover and verifier in a sigma protocol, which can be used to construct a zero knowledge proof.

Succinctness - The property of a zero knowledge proof where the proof size is small relative to the size of the statement being proved.

Random Oracle Model - A mathematical model used to analyze the security of cryptographic protocols.

Simplicity - A programming language used to write and verify zero knowledge circuits.

Honest Verifier Zero Knowledge (HVZK) - A type of zero knowledge proof where the verifier is honest and follows the protocol correctly.

Fiat-Shamir Heuristic - A technique for transforming a 3-round interactive proof into a non-interactive zero knowledge proof.

Sigma Protocol - A type of interactive proof where the prover sends three messages to the verifier, and the verifier responds with a challenge.

Universal Accumulator - A data structure that can be used to efficiently prove that an element is a member of a set.

Groth-Sahai Proofs - A type of zero knowledge proof that is used in pairing-based cryptography.

zk-SNARK - A type of succinct non-interactive zero knowledge proof that can be used to prove knowledge of a solution to a computational problem.

Bulletproof - A type of zero knowledge proof that is used to verify that a computation has been performed correctly.

Range Proof - A type of zero knowledge proof that is used to verify that a value lies within a specific range.

Pedersen Hash - A type of cryptographic hash function that is used in zero knowledge proofs.

Knowledge Soundness - The property of a zero knowledge proof where the proof is sound only if the prover has actual knowledge of the witness.

Common Reference String (CRS) - A set of random values that are used as public parameters in a zero knowledge proof system.

Soundness - The property of a zero knowledge proof where the proof is valid only if the statement being proved is true.

Zero Knowledge Contingent Payment (ZKCP) - A cryptographic protocol that allows for conditional payments without revealing any information beyond the fact that a condition was met.

Quadratic Span Program (QSP) - A type of zero knowledge proof system that is used for verifying computations over quadratic equations.

Proof-of-Knowledge - A type of zero knowledge proof where the prover not only demonstrates that they have the solution to a problem, but also proves that they have the knowledge to solve it.

Simulation Extractable (SE) - A property of a zero knowledge proof system where an efficient algorithm can extract the witness used in the proof from the verifier's transcript.

zk-STARK - A type of zero knowledge proof that uses error-correcting codes to verify computations and transactions.

Interactive Zero Knowledge (IZK) - A type of zero knowledge proof where the prover and verifier interact multiple times.

zk-PCP - A type of zero knowledge proof that uses probabilistically checkable proofs to verify the correctness of a computation.

Public Coin - A type of zero knowledge proof where the randomness used by the verifier is made public.

Private Coin - A type of zero knowledge proof where the randomness used by the verifier is kept secret.

Commitment Scheme - A cryptographic protocol that allows a party to commit to a value without revealing it, and later reveal the value without the possibility of changing it.

Witness Indistinguishability - A property of a zero knowledge proof where the verifier cannot distinguish between a valid witness and an invalid one.

Sublinear Zero Knowledge (SZK) - A type of zero knowledge proof that requires the prover to provide only a small subset of the data they possess.

Efficient Zero Knowledge (EZK) - A type of zero knowledge proof that is efficient in terms of the time and space required to generate and verify the proof.

Blind Signature - A type of digital signature where the signer does not have knowledge of the message being signed.

Non-malleability - A property of a zero knowledge proof where it is impossible for an attacker to modify the proof without invalidating it.

Commitment Ceremony - A cryptographic protocol where two parties agree on a secret value without revealing it to each other, and later reveal the value in a way that proves that they both agreed to it.

Threshold Signature - A digital signature scheme that requires multiple parties to jointly produce a valid signature.

If you want to find out more about our workshops based on zero knowledge technologies contact us